Embrace the power of the written word and discover how your flair for writing could lead to an exciting new career as a journalist, magazine editor or children's author. Australian College of Journalism is part of Open Colleges, Australia's leading provider of online education. Read more
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Strengthen your writing by eliminating these 10 wordsRead More
Good writing uses words sparingly, and if you’ve ever read a book or article that seemed poorly written but couldn’t work out what the problem was, there’s a good chance that it contained too much padding.
What is padding? In short, it’s anything that increases your word count without adding value. In fiction writing this could include overly lengthy character descriptions or unrelated subplots. In non-fiction writing it might contain complex academic language or multiple examples when one would suffice.
It also includes filler words that are either too vague and could be swapped for a more descriptive word, or those that are redundant and could be removed without changing the meaning of what you have written.
Weeding out filler words or replacing weak words with stronger ones will greatly improve the quality of your writing. Here are 10 examples of words you should think twice about using.
Although very is added for emphasis, in writing it rarely has the intended effect, and may even weaken the impact of your statement.
Consider the following sentences:
‘There was no denying that the man was very ugly.’
‘There was no denying that the man was ugly.’
Which one sounds stronger?
This advice also applies to words like “really”, “quite”, or “extremely”. If you can remove any of these words and still convey the same meaning, do so.
Literally has become a popular word in recent years, but it’s rarely used correctly and can nearly always be eliminated.
For example, you shouldn’t say, ‘Her legs literally turned to jelly,’ because, they didn’t. But there would also be no need to say, ‘It literally made him smile,’ because although it did make him smile, you can convey the same message without using this word.
Unless you are using this word to simplify or sum something up, you should leave it out. At best, basically is a crutch word, like well or um, but at worst it can actually make your meaning less clear.
For example, saying, ‘The man was basically dead by the time the paramedics arrived,’ or ‘She is basically exhausted,’ confuses the reader. Was the man dead when the paramedics arrived or wasn’t he? Was she exhausted or merely tired?
Although this word can be used effectively, it often only takes up space and weakens your writing.
An example of when it would be appropriate is if you are explaining that something happened only a short while ago. For instance, ‘I just got back from my holidays.’
Most other uses, however, are unnecessary. For example, saying ‘I just wanted to follow up on...,’ sounds apologetic, whereas ‘I wanted to follow up on...,’ comes across as decisive.
That is one of the most common filler words, and removing it can greatly improve the readability of a sentence. For example, the sentence ‘The car that he bought was brand new,’ isn’t necessarily wrong, but the sentence ‘The car he bought was brand new,’ reads a lot easier and conveys the same meaning.
Then can usually be removed from your writing, as long as it’s still clear that one action is following another. So instead of saying ‘He took a walk and then went for a swim in the river,’ you could simply say, ‘He took a walk and went for a swim in the river.’
Although there’s nothing wrong with this word, it can usually be replaced with a more descriptive one. For instance, instead of saying ‘I had a great milkshake,’ you could give the reader more insight by saying something like, ‘I had a thick, creamy milkshake.’
Because this word is so overused, it has lost some of its power. Before using it, ask yourself if there is a more descriptive way to say it, and whether what you are describing would actually “cause great wonder and surprise”.
For example, ‘The amazing aroma of freshly baked bread,’ would probably read better as ‘The pleasant aroma of freshly baked bread.’
While this isn’t a bad word per se, it doesn’t tell the reader as much as it could. Instead of writing ‘Jane went to the store,’ you could write ‘Jane drove to the store,’ or ‘Jane walked to the store,’ thus giving the reader a better picture of how she went to the store.
As with “went” this word doesn’t give the reader enough information. If you say ‘Harriet got a new swimsuit,’ you’re not telling your readers how she obtained her swimsuit. Did she buy it? Was it given to her? By choosing a more descriptive word, you will make the statement stronger.
Are you interested in learning more about the intricacies of the English language? The Australian College of Journalism offers courses in Creative writing for you to learn your craft. Call us to find out more today.
Life, advice and inspiration: an interview with freelance illustrator and artist, Sebastian CiaffaglioneRead More
Sebastian Ciaffaglione is a freelance illustrator and artist from Melbourne, Australia. His illustrations have appeared in the best-selling Keeper’s Trilogy by Lian Tanner and Garth Nix’s Old Kingdom series published by Allen & Unwin.
The Australian College of Journalism spoke to Sebastian about his freelance career and found out about where he finds his inspiration, creativity and illustration process.
- How and when did you first get into illustration?
Sebastian Ciaffaglione: I’ve always drawn or painted from as early as I can remember. I first thought of illustration as a career when I found the illustration course at the Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE. I thought, if they were teaching it, then it must be a proper job, right?
- While working, do you ever practise and create illustrations just for your personal amusement or are you kept fully occupied with paid gigs?
SC: Oh, yes! I paint for myself all the time. Sometimes I spend too much time on my own paintings when I should be focusing on other projects. I’m part of a number of Facebook artists’ groups that are constantly distracting me with interesting topics to tackle.
- You’ve worked on children’s book covers, fantasy novels and comics. What is your favourite type of commercial project, and why?
SC: Book covers are my favourite. I enjoy reading, I love having the chance to dive into someone’s world and try to interpret it visually.
- Describe your current working environment as a freelance illustrator and how it works for you.
SC: It’s pretty simple really. I have a couple of desks set up, one for digital work with my Wacom (a touchscreen and stylus program designed by a Japanese manufacturer) and a couple of monitors, and the other for traditional work. I just switch between them as I need to.
- How does a typical “day in the life of” a freelance illustrator go?
SC: Well, I’m up around 7:30, have coffee and waste time on Facebook/email/Reddit. Then I will paint for the rest of the day. I like to try and have weekends off these days but it doesn’t always work out that way.
How did you get your first illustration job?
SC: We had an end of year exhibition at TAFE and I was lucky enough to be noticed by a publisher here in Melbourne who offered me my first cover job. It all snowballed from there.
- How do you go about getting your current freelance gigs with professionals such as bestselling authors, Lian Tanner and Garth Nix?
SC: Those jobs are both essentially for the same client, Allen & Unwin. In that case, one job led to the other just from the experience of working together. Most of the time your best marketing tool is just to be published in the first place. Kind of a Catch-22 for people starting out, I guess.
- Take us on a journey through your design process. What does it look like, and where do you start?
SC: I start with the script of course! Taking notes as I read, I pay particular attention to the tone and mood of the story as well as the physical descriptions of the characters, and the world. After I feel familiar enough with the book, I take out my little thumbnail sketchbook and draw dozens and dozens of little “basic thumbnail” drawings. This stage is just about working out a good composition and something that will satisfy everyone. I’ll usually choose two or three of these thumbnails and refine them into a more finished work, but still with “loose” drawings, which I then send to the publisher for approval. Based on their choice and their feedback, I begin the final painting.
- Where do you find your inspiration for both personal and commercial projects?
SC: I am constantly looking at art. Every day I find new artists I love. The sheer amount of brilliant work out there is what inspires me.
- Lastly, do you have any advice you’d like to pass on to aspiring illustrators? Anything you wish you could tell a young, Sebastian Ciaffaglione before becoming a successful freelance illustrator?
SC: Meet your deadlines. That’s the most important piece of advice I can offer any artist. You may be the greatest painter in the world, but your clients will always hire the second best artist if he or she is the one who always meets their deadlines. It’s not just about making art as beautiful as you can.